Superfamily Viviparoidea Family Vivipariidae Genus Angulyagra Genus Cipangopaludina Genus Margarya Genus Sinotaia Genus Taia Subfamily Viviparinae Genus Paludina Genus Tulotoma Genus Viviparus Subfamily Bellamyinae Genus Bellamya Genus Mekongia Genus Neothauma Subfamily Campelominae Genus Campeloma Genus Lioplax
Vivi-parus means giving birth to live young.They have seperated sexes,the males tend to be a little bit smaller than he females. The head of the animal has a short snout(proboscis),the foot is short and wide.The body is brown-grey to darkblue-grey and has orangey dots. The right tentacle of the males is formed to be the copulation organ.It is shorter than the left tentacle. The shells are cone-shaped with an oval aperture.The color is yellowish-brown to olive green usually with three reddish-brown spiral bands. The operculum is yellowish-brown,horn-like and has concentric growth lines.
There are three subfamilies which are: Viviparinae: Viviparus:In Eastern North America and most of Europe. Tulatoma:In the Coosa River, Alabama, USA.
Campelominae or Lioplacinae: Campeloma:In Eastern North America. Lioplax:In Eastern North America.
Bellamyinae: Bellamyia:In Africa, India, Southeast Asia. Cipangopaludina:In East and Southeast Asia. Notopala:In Eastern Australia. Larina:In Northeast Australia.
Viviparus contectus(Millet,1813) The shell is about 40mm high and has a sharp tip,the width is 25-35 mm. It is spherical conical and has 6-6,5 whorls with a deep suture.The color is brownish-green and has usually three bands. The body is brown-grey with orange-yellow dots.They have seperated sexes and can live for ten years. The animals are ovo-viviparious,meaning they give birth to live snails. June-July is the period within most of the young are born. They live in the mud of quiet,sweet water with a rich vegetation such as fishponds,creeks and ditches In North- and Central-Europe,The Meditterranean to Macedonia.
Viviparus viviparus(Linnaeus,1758) Very similar as V.contectus but the shell hasn't a sharp tip and is ovoid conical. The walls are thicker than those of the shell of V.contectus,and has 5-6 whorls. The color is yellow-grey to olive green with three brownish stripes. Height 28-35 mm and width 22-25 mm. They prefer more flowing water and can live for 12-20 years. In Europe.
Viviparus mammilatus(Kuster,185) This species has a more convex shell than V.viviparus. The color is olive yellow to greyish green with reddish stripes. Height 35-40 mm and width 20-28 mm. In Montenegro and Albania in lakes and rivers.
Viviparus acerosus(Bourguignat,1862) A thick strongwalled shell with 5,5-6,5 whorls.The female has more convex whorls than the male which is more slender. The color is greyish green-yellow with three faint brown stripes. Height 30-55 mm and width 23-38 mm. In muddy water from Vienna to the Danube mouth.
Viviparus georgianus(Lea,1834) The shell is light olive green,often with 3-4 brown bands,shiny and globose. Height 38 mm and width 28 mm. In North- and Southern America .
Viviparus malleatus(Reeve,1863) A larger,65 mm,more globose species and lacking color bands. The color is light to dark olive green. This snail is native in the far east but has become established in the US probably through the aquarium- and foodtrade.
Viviparus japonicus(Martens) Very similar to V.malleatus but smaller and less common.
Subfamily Campolominae Campeloma decisum(Say,1817) The shell is olive green ,with some dark lines,conic ovate. Height 25 mm and width 15 mm. This species lives in streams and lakes burrowed in he mud. In North-America,Nova-Scotia to South-Carolina.
Campeloma geniculum(Conrad) A larger species,43 mm in height and 35 mm in width. Shell heavy and deep shouldered. In North-America,North-Carolina to western Florida.
Lioplax subcarinata(Say) Shell brownish to olive green and thin. Height 21 mm and width 13 mm. In North-America,New-York to North-Carolina.
pictures courtesy of Martin Kohl
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